Tuesday, November 5, 2013

Cinco de Noviembre: Negros Revolution


Originally known as the  Negros Revolution  or   Negros Day,
 the  Cinco de Noviembre  was a political campaign that created a government in Negros Island in the Philippines.
 This secretly developed government run by the Negrense native ended the Spanish control of the island informally 
– not the whole archipelago and for a relatively short period of time.
 The freshly constituted Negros Republic lasted approximately three months.
 On February 2, 1899,
 American forces landed on the island unopposed,
 ending the island’s freedom.

US troops embarking at Manila for Negros

In the middle of August 1898,
 a number of rumors of a coming insurrection in the Visayas spread,
 a number of parish priests sought refuge in Iloilo.
 The Negrense revolutionaries agreed that the revolt would begin on November 3, 1898.
 It was to be led by Aniceto Lacson,
 a sugar farmer of Silay,
 with Nicolas Gólez as deputy commander.
 South of Bacolod,
 the revolt would be led by Juan Araneta of Bago City 
with Rafael Ramos of Himamaylan as deputy commander.

Aniceto Lacson

On  Cinco de Noviembre  (November 5, 1898),
 the revolt started in Central and Northern Negros in the morning and spread to other towns including San Miguel and Cadiz in the afternoon.

In Silay,
 Lt. Maximiano Correa,
 commanding the Spanish garrison,
 had ten Spanish cazadores
 (Spanish, literally, “hunters”)
 and seven Filipino civil guards.
 They were entrenched inside the municipal building,
 but surrendered without a fight when they realized that the townspeople were determined to burn the building to the ground if there is any resistance coming from their party.

The last page of the Acta de Capitulación
(Surrender Document).

The Silay parish priest,
 Eulogio Saez,
 a businessman named Juan Viaplana 
and José Ledesma 
persuaded the Spanish forces to lay down their arms,
 but in order to save face,
 the lieutenant had it appear in the official records that the capitulation was the result of a bloody battle with 
“dead and wounded littered all over the field of battle”.

Ten Mauser and seven Remington rifles were surrendered by the Spanish garrison.
 Later,
 a Filipino flag embroidered by Olympia Severino and her sisters was hoisted by the victorious townspeople.

In Bacolod,
 the Spanish Governor of the province,
 Isidro de Castro,
 sent a force of 25  cazadores  and 16 civil guards to engage a swarm of rebels seen camping near the Matab-ang River.
 After a short skirmish,
 they withdrew,
 leaving two of their members dead.
 The Governor decided to make a stand in the Bacolod Convent 
(presently the Bishop’s Palace),
 where hundreds of Spanish families had taken refuge.
 They waited for the attack,
 but it did not come.

Presently,
 a marker can be seen in Silay for the memorial of the Negros Revolution on November 5;
hence,
 the street is named as  Cinco de Noviembre.
 The marker is where the drugstore stood.
 It was a hideout used to secretly plan the successful revolution.

Cinco de Noviembre Memorial Marker in Silay City,
Negros Occidental, Philippines

The  Cinco de Noviembre  is highly observed in Silay than in any other part in Negros Occidental and Negros del Norte.

November 5  was declared by President Corazon Aquino as a special non-working holiday in the province through  Republic Act No. 6709  signed on February 10, 1989.
 During this day many of the museums and other historical edifices in Silay and Bacolod are closed to the public.

Historical marker commemorating the surrender of Spanish
forces in Bacolod in 1898.
 Installed at the Fountain of Justice in 2007.


5 NOVEMBER 1805 
- Colonial Philippines' governor for Zamboanga,
 Francisco Bayot,
 concludes a treaty of peace with Mohamad Ali Mudin,
 sultan of Jolo,
 during the Spanish era;
 the treaty,
 which was in keeping with the policy of colonial propriety governor Gonzalez Aguilar of delegating warfare with the Moros  
[and agreements]  
to the provincial authorities under the colonial central government's aid and directions,
 involved the agreement that the sultan prohibits foreigners from residing in his dominions without prior consent of the Spanish government,
 and in case of war,
 to close his port to the enemies of Spain.


1897 
- Filipino revolutionary head Emilio Aguinaldo authorizes Pedro A. Paterno 
"to enter into harmonious relations" 
with the colonial Spanish government they were supposed to be fighting against during the Philippine Revolution;
 the development comes following the retreat of Aguinaldo's generals to the mountainous town of Biak-na-Bato in Bulacan as Cavite,
 where his "so-called central government" was based,
 succumbed to the Spanish forces as the revolutionary fervor was smothered by Aguinaldo's power grab against,
 and execution,
 of revolutionary leader Andres Bonifacio in May that year,
 with "many [revolutionaries] from Manila,
 Laguna and Batangas,
 who were fighting for the province (of Cavite),
 [having been] demoralized";
 Paterno,
 who was a "purely volunteer mediator",
 without official standing and who had offered himself to the colonial Gov-Gen. Primo de Rivera as negotiator,
 was bestowed with full powers by Aguinaldo  
"to determine, fix, and receive the total sum of funds or values which the Spanish government will grant us."

Bago City relives Cinco de Noviembre
Si  Gen. Juan Araneta  kilala man na siya sa tawag nga "Tan Juan".
 Siya ang ginakabig nga "Hero" sang mga tawo indi lang sa Bago kundi pati sa bilog nga Negros.
 Isa siya sa mga rason nga nakaagom sang ginatawag nga "Freedom" ang mga Bagonhon kag Negrense.

Sa atubangan sang Bago City Coliseum,ginpatindogan siya istatwa sg mga tawo to honor him sa iya ginhimu sa amu nga lugar.
 Siling pa,didto mismo sa iya monumento ginlubong ang iya lawas pagkapatay niya.
 Tanan na, ginhimu sang mga tawo para indi makalimtan ang iya ginpangbuhat kag para mapabalo ang mga masunod nga mga henerasyon nga siya amu si Gen. Juan Araneta "Tan Juan" ang Hero sang lugar sang Bago.



The people of Bago City put up a life-size monument to him astride a horse atop a slightly tapering massive base.
 The general cuts a dignified,
 determined leader and revolutionary,
 his head slightly tilted upward to prove that he can level with the enemy.
 In him resonates every Filipino’s motto at war:
 PKP—Patay Kung Patay!


On November 5, 1898,  (Cinco de Noviembre)
  a messenger from Talisay brought news that the revolutionaries and the cazadores were already engaged in skirmishes.
 At about 1:00 in the afternoon,
 the revolutionary forces in Bago started marching toward Bacolod.
 They had only three firearms among them:
 a Remington rifle, a Mauser rifle, and a shotgun.
 General Araneta,
 who led the rebel forces,
 told his men to cut nipa stems or pagong,
 and to shoulder these as if these were rifles.
 In case they contact with each other,
 the password was to be utod (brother) in Hiligaynon.

The Spanish authorities in Bacolod,
 who saw the rebels marching toward the town,
 thought that they wanted to surrender their arms.
 Surprised,
 the Spaniards were advised by the rebels to surrender in order to avert bloodshed.
 The Spaniards readily agreed.
 It was only when Bacolod was already in the hands of the rebels,
 that the Spanish reinforcements from Iloilo arrived.


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